FIRE simulation project

large-scale gas distribution (left), face-on (middle) and edge-on (right) real-color stellar image of a FIRE cosmological simulation of a Milky Way-mass galaxy

The Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulation project is pushing the resolution frontier in cosmological zoom-in simulations of galaxies, in order to pursue a new ‘bottom-up’ approach of directly resolving the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) while directly implementing stellar evolution models in galaxy simulations. Thus, we seek to improve the predictive power of galaxy formation models and connect them to underlying stellar populations.

Our group at UC Davis is a core member of the FIRE collaboration. We use and develop the FIRE physics model for galaxy formation.

The Gizmo source code for running FIRE simulations is publicly available, and our FIRE-2 simulations are publicly available. In Wetzel et al 2023, we describe the first full public data release (DR1) of the FIRE-2 simulations, available at DR1 contains full snapshots from 46 different simulations, spanning massive to Milky Way-mass to ultra-faint galaxies, with snapshots across z = 0 to 10, and halo/galaxy catalogs as well as additional data products. In Wetzel et al 2023 we provide a comprehensive description of the FIRE-2 simulations and data products, and we describe various publicly available python analysis packages to make reading and using these simulations easier.

This DR1 extends our initial data release (DR0) of a subset of FIRE-2 simulations, which contained complete snapshots of 3 of our Latte simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies at z = 0, accompanied by our Ananke synthetic Gaia DR2-like surveys that we created from these simulations (Sanderson et al 2020), which are available via yt Hub at

FIRE resources

FIRE project website

Hopkins 2015
Describes the Gizmo source code and new mesh-free hydrodynamics method.

Hopkins, Wetzel et al 2023
Describes the FIRE-3 physics model.

Hopkins, Wetzel et al 2018
Describes the FIRE-2 physics model, with numerous numerical tests.

Hopkins, Wetzel et al 2018
Describes our method for modeling mechanical feedback from supernova explosions and stellar mass loss in the FIRE simulations.

Hopkins et al 2019
Describes our method for modeling radiative feedback from stars in the FIRE simulations.

Gizmo users guide
Comprehensive documentation of the Gizmo source code (which we use to run FIRE simulations) and contents of simulation snapshots.

Gizmo source code
Publicly available version of the Gizmo source code (written in C), which contains (almost) all of our FIRE physics modules.

Gizmo snapshot reader and analysis package
Python software package that I develop and use to read and analyze Gizmo snapshots of FIRE simulations.

Publicly available Latte simulation snapshots + synthetic Gaia surveys
Full snapshots at z = 0 and synthetic Gaia DR2-like surveys from 3 Milky Way-like galaxies in the Latte suite of FIRE-2 simulations.

FIRE-2 public data release (Wetzel et al 2023)
Full snapshots of 46 different simulations, spanning z = 0 to 10.